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The Basics On Testing

Have you ever wondered why health professionals ask for a urine sample? Glucose in the urine is called glucosuria; it can occur in people with diabetes that is not properly regulated with insulin, in people with kidney problems that affect the absorption of glucose, in pregnant women, and in people with liver abnormalities or hormonal disorders.
Kidneys also have a number of other miscellaneous roles in maintaining a healthy body including the production of a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production (called erythropoietin ), production of a hormone that helps maintain a normal blood pressure (called renin ), and turning one form of vitamin D into a more active form, which enhances calcium absorption.
Although automated urinalysis systems with a certified central laboratory performing microscopy are time saving, standardized, and cost-effective, otc urine test they are not reliable to diagnose various kidney diseases such as ATN, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, or crystalline-related kidney disease.

Some foods (such as citrus fruit and dairy products) and medicines (such as antacids) can affect urine pH A high (alkaline) pH can be caused by severe vomiting, a kidney disease, some urinary tract infections, and asthma A low (acidic) pH may be caused by severe lung disease ( emphysema ), uncontrolled diabetes, aspirin overdose, severe diarrhea, dehydration, starvation, drinking too much alcohol, or drinking antifreeze (ethylene glycol).
Urine microscopy is not routinely required for confirming a dipstick diagnosis of haematuria.1 However, in some situations, after clinical evaluation, urine microscopy may be useful in helping to distinguish haematuria from haemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria and to detect dysmorphic red blood cells and urinary casts indicating a medical renal cause.
Protein screening is another common urine analysis task, particularly in the case of patients providing a cloudy or otherwise turbid urine sample; a protein screen can determine if the patient may be suffering from nephritic syndrome or other kidney ailments.

If UTI or other obvious causes have been excluded, imaging of the urinary tract is indicated (see Urinary tract imaging - informed decision making ” and Figure 1 ). Assessment by an Urologist and cystoscopy will also be required in the majority of cases, although in young people (age less than 40 years with no risk factors for urothelial malignancy) cancer is unlikely to be the cause.
Whether to establish a diagnosis on the basis of the presence of microbes or the telltale signs of microbial activity in the urine, to measure the content of specific compounds or metabolites in the urine such as in drug testing applications or any of the numerous other applications, urine analysis is often an important part of health maintenance and courses of therapeutic treatment.
Red blood cells that stick together and form red blood cell casts usually indicate problems with the glomeruli, tiny ball-shaped structures in your kidneys that help filter blood and prevent the loss of valuable substances, such as blood cells and proteins.

But in 2015, the Justice Department announced that Millennium Health, a San Diego company that operates labs, had agreed to pay $256 million to resolve allegations that the company had overbilled Medicare and Medicaid for unnecessary urine and genetic tests.
Wait 45 Seconds - Expected Results: low at 1.000 but normal ranges from 1.020 to 1.030 - Specific Gravity: Urine Specific Gravity tests are widely used by medics, nurses and other health professionals to screen for water-loss dehydration and measures of the concentration, or specific gravity, of concentrated particles are in your urine.

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